The primary sources from the native people affected as a result of the conquest are seldom used, because they tend to reflect the views of a particular native group, such as the Tlaxcalans. An extract of this important manuscript was published in 1991 by James Lockhart in Nahuatl transcription and English translation. Most first-hand accounts about the conquest of the Aztec Empire were written by Spaniards: Hernán Cortés' letters to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and the first-person narrative of Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The True History of the Conquest of New Spain. These were almost immediately published in Spain and later in other parts of Europe. They were surprised Cortés had stayed in Tlaxcala so long "among a poor and ill-bred people". In 1522 a Spanish force under the leadership of Cristobal de Olid was sent into Tarascan territory and arrived at Tzintzuntzan within days. Fall of the Aztec Empire By James Baldwin 3rd Hour There were many reasons why the Aztec empire fell. Cortés confronted the city leaders in the main temple alleging that they were planning to attack his men. In the sources recorded by Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún and Dominican Diego Durán in the mid to late sixteenth century, there are accounts of events that were interpreted as supernatural omens of the conquest. Hernán Cortés is voiced by Jim Cummings. 16th-century Spanish invasion of Mesoamerica, Significant events in the conquest of Mesoamerica. Cortés soon arrived at Tlaxcala, a confederacy of about 200 towns and different tribes, but without central government. The fall of Tenochtitlan took place about two years following Hernán Cortés’ arrival in Aztec territory. "[47]:181 Some accounts would claim that this idol or deity was Quetzalcoatl, and that the Aztecs were defeated because they believed the Spanish were supernatural and didn't know how to react, although whether or not the Aztecs really believed that is debatable. [clarification needed] Moctezuma warned Cortés to leave at once, as their lives were at risk. [47]:311, Cortés was able to pacify the country, after the indigenous realized the Spaniards put "an end to the rape and robbery that the Mexicans practised." An Aztec poem rhetorically asked “Who could conquer Tenochtitlan? In 1585, Don Alvaro Manrique de Zúñiga, Marquis of Villamanrique, was appointed viceroy. Spanish friars taught indigenous tribes to write their own languages in Latin letters, which soon became a self-perpetuating tradition at the local level. After Cortés permitted the defeated soldiers to settle in the country, they "passed with more or less willingness to Cortés' side." In letters to his King, Cortés claimed that in three hours time his troops (helped by the Tlaxcalans) killed 3,000 people and had burned the city. Previously, during Juan de Grijalva's expedition, Moctezuma believed that those men were heralds of Quetzalcoatl, as Moctezuma, as well as everyone else in the Aztec Empire, were to believe that eventually, Quetzalcoatl will return. Moctezuma II, the Aztec ruler, tried to make peace, inviting the new arrivals into Tenochtitlán, but the Aztec people revolted. [47]:386–87, 391, 401–03, Cortés then ordered the idols of the Aztec gods in the temples to be taken down and replaced with icons of Christianity. Moctezuma was jeered and stones were thrown at him, mortally wounding Moctezuma. Fall of the Aztec Empire Even though they had cut off the city's water supplies, the siege continued through July 1521. [67] Velásquez had used this same legal mechanism to free himself from Diego Columbus' authority in Cuba. [47]:204, In one of his responses to Cortés, Moctezuma blamed the commanders of the local Aztec garrison for the resistance in Cholula, and recognizing that his long-standing attempts to dissuade Cortés from coming to Tenochtitlan with gifts of gold and silver had failed, Moctezuma finally invited the conquistadors to visit his capital city, according to Spanish sources, after feeling as though nothing else could be done. "[42]:64[81], Moctezuma had the royal palace of Axayácatl, Moctezuma's father, prepared for Cortés. First, killing thousands of people, whether you or your neighbours, simply can't be good for a society. ", This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 03:32. According to Diaz, Moctezuma said to Cortés, "As for your great King, I am in his debt and will give him of what I possess. 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